Basis of Presentation, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Recent Accounting Pronouncements
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2019
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Basis of Presentation, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Recent Accounting Pronouncements||
Note 3. Basis of Presentation, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Principles of consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements of the Company include the accounts of the Company and its wholly or majority owned and controlled subsidiaries. Consolidated subsidiaries results are included from the date the subsidiary was formed or acquired. Intercompany investments, balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. Non–controlling interests represents the minority equity investment in the Company's subsidiaries, plus the minority investors' share of the net operating results and other components of equity relating to the non–controlling interest. The Company's consolidated operating subsidiaries and (percentage owned at December 31, 2019) consisted of; Kairos Global Technology, Inc., (100%) and Logical Brokerage Corp. (92.5%).
Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the balance sheet and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ significantly from those estimates. The most significant accounting estimates inherent in the preparation of the Company's financial statements include estimates associated with revenue recognition, asset valuations, the useful lives and recoverability of long-lived assets, impairment analysis of intangibles and goodwill, stock-based compensation, and the valuation allowance associated with the Company’s deferred tax assets.
As described in Note 6 to these consolidated financial statements, effective January 1, 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-01 and related ASU 2018-03 concerning recognition and measurement of financial assets and financial liabilities. In adopting this new guidance, the Company has made an accounting policy election to adopt an adjusted cost method measurement alternative for investments in equity securities without readily determinable fair values.
For equity investments that are accounted for using the measurement alternative, the Company initially records equity investments at cost but is required to adjust the carrying value of such equity investments through earnings when there is an observable transaction involving the same or a similar investment with the same issuer or upon an impairment.
As of December 31, 2019, the Company’s long-term investments consist of its investments in Coinsquare Ltd., (“Coinsquare”), TessPay Inc. (formerly 1172767 B.C. Ltd) (“Tess”) and Verady, LLC (“Verady”).
Cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less at the date of acquisition to be cash equivalents. From time to time, the Company's cash account balances exceed the balances as covered by the Federal Deposit Insurance System. The Company has never suffered a loss due to such excess balances. As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company had no cash equivalents or short-term investments.
Fair value of financial instruments
The Company accounts for financial instruments under Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements. This statement defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value in generally accepted accounting principles, and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. To increase consistency and comparability in fair value measurements, ASC 820 establishes a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value into three levels as follows:
Level 1 — quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;
Level 2 — observable inputs other than Level 1, quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets and liabilities in markets that are not active, and model-derived prices whose inputs are observable or whose significant value drivers are observable; and
Level 3 — assets and liabilities whose significant value drivers are unobservable.
Observable inputs are based on market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs are based on the Company's market assumptions. Unobservable inputs require significant management judgment or estimation. In some cases, the inputs used to measure an asset or liability may fall into different levels of the fair value hierarchy. In those instances, the fair value measurement is required to be classified using the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Such determination requires significant management judgment. As of December 31, 2019 there were no financial assets or liabilities measured at fair value. The carrying amounts of the Company’s financial assets and liabilities, such as cash and cash equivalents, and accounts payable, approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments. During the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company issued convertible notes and warrants in connection with the notes. The notes and warrants were classified as liabilities and measured at fair value on the issuance date, with changes in fair value recognized as other expense on the consolidated statements of operations and disclosed in the consolidated financial statements.
Cryptocurrencies, (including bitcoin, bitcoin cash and litecoin) are included in current assets in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. Cryptocurrencies purchased are recorded at cost and cryptocurrencies awarded to the Company through its mining activities are accounted for in connection with the Company’s revenue recognition policy disclosed below.
Cryptocurrencies held are accounted for as intangible assets with indefinite useful lives. An intangible asset with an indefinite useful life is not amortized but assessed for impairment annually, or more frequently, when events or changes in circumstances occur indicating that it is more likely than not that the indefinite-lived asset is impaired. Impairment exists when the carrying amount exceeds its fair value, which is measured using the quoted price of the cryptocurrency at the time its fair value is being measured. In testing for impairment, the Company has the option to first perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that an impairment exists. If it is determined that it is not more likely than not that an impairment exists, a quantitative impairment test is not necessary. If the Company concludes otherwise, it is required to perform a quantitative impairment test. To the extent an impairment loss is recognized, the loss establishes the new cost basis of the asset. Subsequent reversal of impairment losses is not permitted.
Purchases of cryptocurrencies by the Company are included within investing activities in the accompanying consolidated statements of cash flows, while cryptocurrencies awarded to the Company through its mining activities are included within operating activities on the accompanying consolidated statements of cash flows. The sales of cryptocurrencies are included within investing activities in the accompanying consolidated statements of cash flows and any realized gains or losses from such sales are included in other income (expense) in the consolidated statements of operations. The Company accounts for its gains or losses in accordance with the first in first out (FIFO) method of accounting.
The Company recognized upfront license fees from Ceva Santé Animale S.A. (“Licensee”) related to its exclusive license agreement (“License Agreement”), which have been recorded as deferred revenue and are being amortized over the term of the License Agreement. Amortization of the license fees totaling approximately $1.6 million began in July 2012. As of December 31, 2019, and 2018, each, deferred revenue of approximately $0.1 million has been classified as a current liability and $0.8 million and $0.9 million, respectively, has been classified as a long-term liability. The current liability represents the next twelve months' portion of the license fees revenue. For each of the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, approximately $0.1 million, was recorded as the license fee revenue.
Property and equipment
Property and equipment is stated at cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, generally two years for cryptocurrency mining equipment and three years for computer related assets. Estimated useful lives for leasehold improvements are typically the lesser of the estimated useful life of the asset or the life of the term of the lease.
Patents and other intangible assets
The Company accounts for intangible assets under ASC 350-30. Patents costs consisting of filing and legal fees incurred are initially recorded at cost. Patents are amortized over the legal life of the patent or their estimated useful lives, using the straight-line method. Certain patents are in the legal application process and therefore are not currently being amortized.
Impairment of long-lived assets
Management reviews long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets. Based on its reviews, management determined that its cryptocurrency mining equipment and related improvements were impaired by a total of $29.2 million based upon an assessment as of December 31, 2018, including consideration of the decline in bitcoin values which occurred commencing in late December 2017 and continued through December 31, 2018.
Intangible assets acquired in the Tess business combination consist primarily of in-process research and development (“IPR&D”) assets. The value attributable to IPR&D projects at the time of acquisition is capitalized as an indefinite-lived intangible asset and tested for impairment until the project is completed or abandoned. Upon completion of the project, the indefinite-lived intangible asset will be accounted for as a finite-lived intangible asset and amortized on a straight-line basis over its estimated useful life. If the project is abandoned, the indefinite-lived intangible asset will be charged to expense. During the year ended December 31, 2018, management determined that its intangible assets related to the Tess Investment were impaired and recorded an impairment charge of $1.3 million.
The Company made the decision, effective as of December 31, 2019 not to pursue its RiotX / Logical Brokerage cryptocurrency exchange development plan, and as of December 31, 2019 recorded an impairment of intangible assets acquired of approximately $0.7 million.
Deferred tax liability
Due to certain acquisitions, temporary differences between the book fair value and the tax basis of the indefinite life intangible assets and depreciable property and equipment were recorded. The Company recognized a $0.1 million deferred tax liability related to its Logical Brokerage acquisition during the year ended December 31, 2018. Subsequently, due to the Company’s decision not to pursue its Logical Brokerage business and the impairment and depreciation of the Kairos property and equipment, the Company recorded a $0.1 million and $0.7 million income tax benefit during the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, from the reduction of its existing deferred tax liability related to its acquisitions. The following is a rollforward of the Company’s deferred tax liability from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2019:
On January 28, 2019, the Company adopted a sequencing policy under Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 815-40-35 Derivatives and Hedging (“ASC 815”) whereby in the event that reclassification of contracts from equity to assets or liabilities is necessary pursuant to ASC 815 due to the Company’s inability to demonstrate it has sufficient authorized shares as a result of certain securities convertible or exchangeable for a potentially indeterminable number of shares, shares will be allocated on the basis of the earliest issuance date of potentially dilutive instruments, with the earliest grants receiving the first allocation of shares. Pursuant to ASC 815, issuances of securities to the Company’s employees or directors are not subject to the sequencing policy.
Notes payable fair value option
As described further in Note 10 - Notes and Other Obligations, in January 2019, the Company issued Senior Secured Promissory Notes (the “Notes”) to Oasis Capital, LLC, Harbor Gates Capital, LLC and SG3 Capital, LLC (each an “Investor” and collectively, the “Investors”) in the aggregate principal amount of approximately $3.4 million. The Company has elected the fair value option to account for these Notes due to the complexity and number of embedded features. The fair value of the Notes is classified within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy because the fair values were estimated utilizing a Monte Carlo simulation model. Accordingly, the Company recorded these Notes at fair value with changes in fair value recorded in the statement of operations. As a result of applying the fair value option, direct costs and fees related to the Notes were recognized in earnings as incurred and were not deferred. The change in fair value of the Notes has been presented as change in value of convertible notes payable on the consolidated statements of operations.
As of December 31, 2019, all of the Notes were converted into 1,813,500 shares of the Company’s common stock valued at their estimated fair value at the time of conversion totaling approximately $10.2 million.
The Company issued Warrants to purchase 1,908,144 shares of its common stock in connection with the Notes issued to the Investors in January 2019, and recorded these outstanding Warrants as a liability at fair value utilizing a Monte Carlo simulation model. This liability is subject to re-measurement at each balance sheet date, and any change in fair value is recognized in the Company's consolidated statements of operations.
As of June 25, 2019, the Company’s Notes had been converted in their entirety and the warrant liability was revalued and reclassified to equity, because the Warrants are no longer subject to the Company’s sequencing policy as described above.
Effective January 1, 2019, the Company accounts for its leases under ASC 842, Leases (“ASC 842”). Under this guidance, arrangements meeting the definition of a lease are classified as operating or financing leases, and are recorded on the consolidated balance sheet as both a right of use asset and lease liability, calculated by discounting fixed lease payments over the lease term at the rate implicit in the lease or the Company’s incremental borrowing rate. Lease liabilities are increased by interest and reduced by payments each period, and the right of use asset is amortized over the lease term. For operating leases, interest on the lease liability and the amortization of the right of use asset result in straight-line rent expense over the lease term.
In calculating the right of use asset and lease liability, the Company elects to combine lease and non-lease components as permitted under ASC 842. The Company excludes short-term leases having initial terms of 12 months or less from the new guidance as an accounting policy election and recognizes rent expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
The Company continues to account for leases in the prior period financial statements under ASC Topic 840.
The Company recognizes revenue under ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The core principle of the new revenue standard is that a company should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The following five steps are applied to achieve that core principle:
• Step 1: Identify the contract with the customer
• Step 2: Identify the performance obligations in the contract
• Step 3: Determine the transaction price
• Step 4: Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract
• Step 5: Recognize revenue when the Company satisfies a performance obligation
In order to identify the performance obligations in a contract with a customer, a company must assess the promised goods or services in the contract and identify each promised good or service that is distinct. A performance obligation meets ASC 606’s definition of a “distinct” good or service (or bundle of goods or services) if both of the following criteria are met: The customer can benefit from the good or service either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available to the customer (i.e., the good or service is capable of being distinct), and the entity’s promise to transfer the good or service to the customer is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract (i.e., the promise to transfer the good or service is distinct within the context of the contract).
If a good or service is not distinct, the good or service is combined with other promised goods or services until a bundle of goods or services is identified that is distinct.
The transaction price is the amount of consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring promised goods or services to a customer. The consideration promised in a contract with a customer may include fixed amounts, variable amounts, or both. When determining the transaction price, an entity must consider the effects of all of the following:
Variable consideration is included in the transaction price only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved. The transaction price is allocated to each performance obligation on a relative standalone selling price basis. The transaction price allocated to each performance obligation is recognized when that performance obligation is satisfied, at a point in time or over time as appropriate.
The Company has entered into digital asset mining pools by executing contracts with the mining pool operators to provide computing power to the mining pool. The contracts are terminable at any time by either party and the Company’s enforceable right to compensation only begins when the Company provides computing power to the mining pool operator. In exchange for providing computing power, the Company is entitled to a fractional share of the fixed cryptocurrency award the mining pool operator receives (less digital asset transaction fees to the mining pool operator which are recorded as a component of cost of revenues), for successfully adding a block to the blockchain. The Company’s fractional share is based on the proportion of computing power the Company contributed to the mining pool operator to the total computing power contributed by all mining pool participants in solving the current algorithm.
Providing computing power in digital asset transaction verification services is an output of the Company’s ordinary activities. The provision of providing such computing power is the only performance obligation in the Company’s contracts with mining pool operators. The transaction consideration the Company receives, if any, is noncash consideration, which the Company measures at fair value on the date received, which is not materially different than the fair value at contract inception or the time the Company has earned the award from the pools. The consideration is all variable. Because it is not probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue will not occur, the consideration is constrained until the mining pool operator successfully places a block (by being the first to solve an algorithm) and the Company receives confirmation of the consideration it will receive, at which time revenue is recognized. There is no significant financing component in these transactions.
Fair value of the cryptocurrency award received is determined using the quoted price of the related cryptocurrency at the time of receipt.
There is currently no specific definitive guidance under GAAP or alternative accounting framework for the accounting for cryptocurrencies recognized as revenue or held, and management has exercised significant judgment in determining the appropriate accounting treatment. In the event authoritative guidance is enacted by the FASB, the Company may be required to change its policies, which could have an effect on the Company’s consolidated financial position and results from operations.
Cost of revenue
The Company's cost of revenue consists primarily of direct production costs related to mining operations, including mining pool fees, rent and utilities, but excluding depreciation and amortization, which are separately stated in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations.
The Company applies the provisions of ASC 805 in the accounting for acquisitions. ASC 805 requires us to recognize separately from goodwill the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed at their acquisition date fair values. Goodwill as of the acquisition date is measured as the excess of consideration transferred over the net of the acquisition date fair values of the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. While we use our best estimates and assumptions to accurately apply preliminary value to assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date as well as contingent consideration, where applicable, these estimates are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. As a result, during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date, the Company records adjustments in the current period, rather than a revision to a prior period. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period or final determination of the values of the assets acquired or liabilities assumed, whichever comes first, any subsequent adjustments are recorded in our consolidated statements of operations. Accounting for business combinations requires management to make significant estimates and assumptions, especially at the acquisition date, including estimates for intangible assets, contractual obligations assumed, restructuring liabilities, pre-acquisition contingencies, and contingent consideration, where applicable. Although we believe the assumptions and estimates we have made have been reasonable and appropriate, they are based in part on historical experience and information obtained from management of the acquired companies and are inherently uncertain. Critical estimates in valuing certain of the intangible assets we have acquired include; future expected cash flows from product sales; customer contracts and acquired technologies; expected costs to develop in-process research and development into commercially viable products and estimated cash flows from the projects when completed; and discount rates. Unanticipated events and circumstances may occur that may affect the accuracy or validity of such assumptions, estimates, or actual results.
The Company accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method, in which deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carry forwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in operations in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance is required to the extent any deferred tax assets may not be realizable.
ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes, (“ASC 740”), also clarifies the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in an enterprise's financial statements and prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement process for financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. For those benefits to be recognized, a tax position must be more-likely-than-not to be sustained upon examination by taxing authorities. ASC 740 also provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim period, disclosure and transition. Based on the Company's evaluation, it has been concluded that there are no significant uncertain tax positions requiring recognition in the Company's consolidated financial statements. The Company believes that its income tax positions and deductions would be sustained on audit and does not anticipate any adjustments that would result in material changes to its financial position.
The Company accounts for share-based payment awards exchanged for services at the estimated grant date fair value of the award. Stock options issued under the Company’s long-term incentive plans are granted with an exercise price equal to no less than the market price of the Company’s stock at the date of grant and expire up to ten years from the date of grant. These options generally vest on the grant date or over a one- year period.
The Company estimates the fair value of stock option grants using the Black-Scholes option pricing model and the assumptions used in calculating the fair value of stock-based awards represent management’s best estimates and involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management’s judgment.
Expected Term - The expected term of options represents the period that the Company’s stock-based awards are expected to be outstanding based on the simplified method, which is the half-life from vesting to the end of its contractual term.
Expected Volatility - The Company computes stock price volatility over expected terms based on its historical common stock trading prices.
Risk-Free Interest Rate - The Company bases the risk-free interest rate on the implied yield available on U. S. Treasury zero-coupon issues with an equivalent remaining term.
Expected Dividend - The Company has never declared or paid any cash dividends on its common shares and does not plan to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future, and, therefore, uses an expected dividend yield of zero in its valuation models.
Effective January 1, 2017, the Company elected to account for forfeited awards as they occur, as permitted by Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-09. Ultimately, the actual expenses recognized over the vesting period will be for those shares that vested. Prior to making this election, the Company estimated a forfeiture rate for awards at 0%, as the Company did not have a significant history of forfeitures.
Loss per share
Basic net loss per share (“EPS”) of common stock is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted EPS reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock or resulted in the issuance of common stock that then shared in the earnings of the entity. The Company excludes its unvested restricted shares and escrow shares from the net loss per share calculation. The escrow shares are excluded because of related contingencies and including them would result in anti-dilution.
Since the Company has only incurred losses, basic and diluted net loss per share is the same. Securities that could potentially dilute loss per share in the future that were not included in the computation of diluted loss per share at December 31, 2019 and 2018 because their inclusion would be anti-dilutive are as follows:
Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker, or decision–making group in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. Our chief operating decision–making group is composed of the chief executive officer. We currently operate in one segment surrounding our cryptocurrency mining operation.
The Company has evaluated all events that occurred after the balance sheet date through the date when the financial statements were issued. See Note 17.
Recently issued and adopted accounting pronouncements
The Company continually assesses any new accounting pronouncements to determine their applicability. When it is determined that a new accounting pronouncement affects the Company's financial reporting, the Company undertakes a study to determine the consequences of the change to its consolidated financial statements and assures that there are proper controls in place to ascertain that the Company's consolidated financial statements properly reflect the change.
In February 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) in order to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by, among other provisions, recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet for those leases classified as operating leases under previous U.S. GAAP. For public companies, ASU 2016-02 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018 (including interim periods within those periods) using a modified retrospective approach and early adoption is permitted. In transition, entities may also elect a package of practical expedients that must be applied in its entirety to all leases commencing before the adoption date, unless the lease is modified, and permits entities to not reassess (a) the existence of a lease, (b) lease classification or (c) determination of initial direct costs, as of the adoption date, effectively allowing entities to carryforward accounting conclusions under previous U.S. GAAP. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements, which provides entities an optional transition method to apply the guidance under Topic 842 as of the adoption date, rather than as of the earliest period presented. The Company adopted Topic 842 on January 1, 2019, using the optional transition method to apply the new guidance as of January 1, 2019, rather than as of the earliest period presented, and elected the package of practical expedients described above. Based on the analysis, on January 1, 2019, the Company recorded right of use assets and lease liabilities of approximately $1.5 million.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which simplifies the accounting for share-based payments granted to nonemployees for goods and services. Under the ASU, most of the guidance on such payments to nonemployees would be aligned with the requirements for share-based payments granted to employees. The amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than an entity’s adoption date of Topic 606. The Company adopted this new standard on January 1, 2019 and the adoption did not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, “Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework – Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement” (“ASU 2018-13”), which makes a number of changes meant to add, modify or remove certain disclosure requirements associated with the movement amongst or hierarchy associated with Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3 fair value measurements. This guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted upon issuance of the update. The Company adopted ASU 2018-13 on January 1, 2020 and its adoption did not have any impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (“ASU 2019-12”), which is intended to simplify various aspects related to accounting for income taxes. ASU 2019-12 removes certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 and also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. This guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this standard on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef